English learners have difficulty with gerunds and infinitives. Gerund and infinitive phrases the university of texas at dallas. The to infinitive is also used to shorten sentences and to join sentences. The gerund or infinitive after the verb exercise 2 1 use the verbs in brackets to fill the gaps. The infinitive form of a verb is usually preceded by to e. An infinitive acts like a noun, adverb or adjective in a sentence. Words that are formed from verbs but dont act as verbs are called verbals. However, what can be confusing is that the infinitive phrase. I went on holiday this is what i did to relax this is why i did it. Grammar gerunds and infinitives learning how to use gerunds and infinitives is one of the most challenging aspects of learning english. These two words act together as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Adjective and adverbs downloadable pdf worksheets for english language learners intermediate level b1 home b1 grammar gerund and infinitive gerund and infintive b1. I had to go i must go i want to sing to err is human you dont know her you may come. Paramita ray and meenakshi puri, longman english grammar 6, rev.
Let me know if you would like an explanation of the rules covered in this test. An infinitive will almost always begin with to followed by the simple form of the verb, like this. Gerunds and participles are also compared and contrasted in a separate section of this handout because they can both end in. In this sentence, the infinitive phrase functions as a noun and the. Make any necessary changes in the form of the verbs. Imperatives and infinitives for giving suggestions. Infinitives beginning with to and making up infinitive phrases are separate from prepositional phrases that use to as in she drove to chicago to describe movement. A gerund is a verb in its ing present participle form that functions as a noun that names an activity rather than a person or thing. A gerund is a verbal that ends in ing and functions as a noun.
Infinitive form of a verb what is the infinitive form of a. In english, both gerunds and infinitives can be used to. Infinitive definition of infinitive by merriamwebster. We can use the infinitive to explain why we do things. Verbs that show emotion and the fulfillment of unfulfillment of an activity may affect the meaning depending on the choice of an infinitive or a gerund. A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different part of speech, usually a noun. This is quite a complicated exercise so i would be interested to hear your thoughts on it. Infinitive verbs the infinitive form of a verb is the verb in its basic form. It can take on the role of a subject, direct object. Gerunds and infinitives can function as the subject of a sentence or the object of a. As there are no rules regarding this, you have to study which verbs take infinitives and which verbs take gerunds. Infinitive meaning in the cambridge english dictionary. It can be tricky to remember which verbs are followed by the infinitive the to form of the verb and which are followed by the gerund the ing form of the verb.
Infinitive are a verb that are used with the word to, they can are used a lot with the subject it. Gerunds and infinitives some important rules the form of the verb that ends in ing is called a gerund when used as a noun. Verbs followed by a gerund or infinitive with little to no change in meaning. Check out role play book specifically designed for esl efl classes. Infinitives without to are known as bare infinitives. Note that some verbs cannot be followed by infinitives. Gerunds and infinitives can function b to compose a sonata would take months. The good news is that our threepart tutorial gives you twenty gerund and infinitive tips to take you from beginner to pro. There are also some verbs that can be either followed by ing forms or by to infinitives. Using the word it you will use infinitives a lot with the subject it.
Eating too much fast food is not good for your health. It is unmarked, and it is preceded by the particle to. The infinitive usually occurs with to for example to go, to come, to wear etc. Verbs can also serve as subjects when it comes to infinitives, something you never heard of. Explanations and examples along with tests and exercises online to practise english gerund. Infinitive definition of infinitive by the free dictionary. Infinitive abbreviated inf is a linguistics term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as nonfinite verbs. Gerunds and infinitives can function as the subject of a sentence or the object of a verb. They know which one to choose by what sounds right. When a verb is in its infinitive state, it has no subject or object.
We have already looked at gerunds, which are verbs ending in ingwhich makes them nouns. Using gerunds and infinitives a gerund is a verb form that ends in ing and is used as a noun walking, traveling, voting. To sneeze, to smash, to cry, to shriek, to jump, to dunk, to read, to eat, to slurp all of these are infinitives. Infinitives definition of infinitives by the free dictionary. Choose the correct answer for each gap below, then click the check button to check your answers. Gerunds, participles, and infinitives in this handout, the three types of verbals are discussed. Part a 7 practice 1 part a exercise 2 circle the correct answers. It is the version of the verb which will appear in the dictionary.
Pick it up and use one of the role plays in your next class. The following guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a gerund or infinitive is needed. Infinitive definition is formed with the infinitive. Because their function is that of a noun, gerunds may be used as the subject of a sentence. Gerund and infinitive worksheets are in pdf format and consist of a worksheet and answer sheet to check your results. It can also appear as a subject complement, which provides information. An infinitive phrase is a group of words that starts with the infinitive. Pearson, 2007 the to infinitive or a to infinitive clause is used. A tour will help you see a number of attractions in a relatively short time and will include professional guides who are trained to provide interesting historical details and stories for whatever site you are visiting. Students often have a difficult time knowing when to use gerunds and infinitives. Understanding the use of infinitives english grammar.
The infinitive can also act as a subject complement. Infinitives may occur with or without the infinitive marker to. Combine the given words or ideas into one sentence. After the following phrases we use the infinitive with to in english. In this post, i will help you understand when to use a gerund or infinitive to describe the purpose of someone or something. There are a few verbs that may be followed by ing forms. In english, when we talk about the infinitive we are usually referring to the present infinitive, which is the most common. Use it is adjective to infinitive to make the infinitive the subject of a sentence. It is important that you can use them correctly in your ielts speaking and writing or when you use english more generally. Gi003 gerund or infinitive fill in the correct form intermediate.
For this reason, here you have a deep explanation of all their uses. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Apr 17, 2015 english learners have difficulty with gerunds and infinitives. An infinitive phrase is made up of the particle to, an infinitive, and any accompanying objects, modifiers, or complements. Even at the intermediate level, this is typically not covered extensively and lesson plans instead focus on very specific structures such as. Gerunds and infinitives part 1 easy and clear rules the gerund can be used as the subject of a sentence. The infinitive recognize an infinitive when you see one. An infinitive can act as a noun, appearing as the subject or direct object of a sentence. Its packed with 50 role plays and is perfect for small or large classes. There are, however, four other forms of the infinititive.
There are also some verbs that can be either followed by ing forms or by toinfinitives. Learning to use gerunds and infinitives can feel a bit overwhelming at first. Aug 26, 2014 note that some verbs cannot be followed by infinitives. Gerunds and infinitives some important rules azar grammar. Infinitive and gerund infinitive after an adjective example. How to explain the difference between gerund and infinitive. Infinitive is formed by adding to with a verb that acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence. It is a verb form that shows no person, tense or aspect. Many english learners have difficulty choosing between the infinitive form and the ing form. Following a verb gerund or infinitive both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as the object of a verb.
As with many linguistic concepts, there is not a single definition applicable to all languages. An infinitive is formed from a verb but doesnt act as a verb. Gerunds are often used when actions are real, fixed, or completed. Gerunds and infinitives web islamic university of gaza. Infinitives synonyms, infinitives pronunciation, infinitives translation, english dictionary definition of infinitives. In english, both gerunds and infinitives can be used to talk about the reason why we use or do something.
See all the gerund and infinitive exercises here heres my video on the subject. The gerund or infinitive after the verb exercise 2 at auto. No difference in meaning or with a significant change in meaning see. An infinitive phrase can function as a noun, adjective, or adverb. Feelsee hear watch someone do doing i heard him tell you about the letter. It can be a little difficult to know when to use gerunds and infinitives. After prepositions i drank a cup of coffee before leaving. Knowing which verbs or phrases are followed by gerunds, infinitives or either. It is used to define the action of the verb without tying it to a specific person. Gerund it is a verb form which ends in ing and works as a noun in the following cases. Going to a new city is exciting, and taking a tour is especially convenient for travelers. Gerunds and infinitives are a part of english grammar that many english learners find challenging. Here in part 1, we introduce gerunds and infinitives and explain the basics of everyday usage.
There are a few verbs that may be followed by ing forms or by to infinitives, but with a change in meaning. You will use infinitives a lot to indicate a purpose or the intention of an action. Esl conversation questions gerunds and infinitives. A gerund is the ing form of a verb that functions the same as a noun. T he i nfi ni tive recognize an infinitive when you see one. When we use the word to before a verb in a sentence, we are using the infinitive verb form. It acts as a noun, adjective, or adverb, and it is actually made up of two words.1416 64 106 1285 585 618 739 1026 298 1414 514 432 1520 884 762 421 93 1326 1351 1389 983 1143 507 701 1198 100 996 215 562 967 1450 1038 159 545 44 1346 1105 1123 1380 530 1494 35 495 1373 30